Native Americans

Family outing, ca. 1922. Personal collection.
Family outing, ca. 1922. Personal collection.

Long before European colonization and American rebellion created the state of Connecticut, diverse indigenous communities called the land home. They worked its soil, traveled its reaches to trade, and established cultures rich in political, artistic, technological, spiritual, and environmental legacies that continue to evolve today. Despite war, enslavement, and prejudice, Native people have remained active agents in their own and State history. Notable figures include Robin Cassacinamon, a 17th-century Pequot sachem and diplomat, and Mohegan medicine woman Gladys Tantaquidgeon, an educator, activist, and, in 1931, co-founder of the first Native American-owned Indian museum in the US. The state-recognized sovereign nations in Connecticut are the Eastern Pequot, Golden Hill Paugussett, and Schaghticoke tribes with the Mashantucket Pequot and Mohegan having federal recognition as well.

LEARN MORE

Websites

“Battlefields of the Pequot War.” Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center, 2012. Link.
“Connecticut Native American Tribes.” Connecticut State Library, 2012. Link.
“Connecticut State Museum of Natural History & Connecticut Archaeology Center - Norris Bull Anthropological Collection,” 2012. Link.
“Heritage - Our History.” The Mohegan Tribe, 2012. Link.
“The Indian Mariners Project.” Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center, 2013. Link.

Places

“Institute for American Indian Studies Museum & Research Center,” 2012. Link.
“Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center,” 2012. Link.
“Tantaquidgeon Museum.” The Mohegan Tribe, 2012. Link.
“The Indian & Colonial Research Center,” 2012. Link.

Documents

Smith, John. “A Description of New England (1616): An Online Electronic Text Edition.” Edited by Paul Royster. Electronic Texts in American Studies, 1616. Link.
Avery, Humphry. “A Plan of the Lands in New London Sequestred for the Sole Use and Improvement of the Mohegan Indian Tribe,” 1736. University of Connecticut Libraries, Map and Geographic Information Center - MAGIC. Link.
Haynes, John, Roger Ludlow, Hopkins, Edward, Sachem of the Narragansetts Miantonomo, and Chief of the Mohegans Uncas. “Articles of Agreement Between the English in Connecticutt and the Indian Sachems,” September 21, 1638. Connecticut State Library. Link.
Griswold, Hayden L., and Mathias Spiess. “Map of Connecticut Circa 1625. Indian Trails, Villages, Sachemdoms,” 1930. University of Connecticut Libraries, Map and Geographic Information Center - MAGIC. Link.
Griswold, Hayden L. “Map of the State of Connecticut Showing Indian Trails, Villages and Sachemdoms.” Connecticut Society of the Colonial Dames of America, 1930. University of Connecticut Libraries, Map and Geographic Information Center - MAGIC. Link.
“Native American Resources, Research Guide.” Connecticut State Library, 2012. Link.
“New London County Native Americans Collection - Database.” Connecticut State Library, 2012. Link.
“Plan of the East Part of the Colony of Connecticut in North America: Shewing the Situation of the Lands in Controversy Between the Inhabitants of That Colony and the Moheagan Indians.” Connecticut History Online. Accessed March 30, 2012. Link.
Tinker, John. “Plan of the Pequot Country and Testimony of Uncas, Casasinomon, and Wesawegun.” Manuscript Map - Photostatic Copy. Hartford, CT: Connecticut State Library, 1662. University of Connecticut Libraries, Map and Geographic Information Center - MAGIC. Link.
Saltonstall, Gurdon. “State of the Mohegan Fields, Lying Between the Land Granted to New-London on the South, and Norwich on the North, in Her Majesties Colony Connecticut.” Timothy Green, 1714. Connecticut History Online. Link.
“Yale Indian Papers Project.” Yale University, 2007. Link.

Books

McMullen, Ann, Russell G. Handsman, Joan A. Lester, and American Indian Archaeological Institute. A Key into the Language of Woodsplint Baskets. Washington, CT: American Indian Archaeological Institute, 1987.
Guillette, Mary E. American Indians in Connecticut; Past to Present: A Report. Hartford, CT: Connecticut Indian Affairs Council, 1979.
Den Ouden, Amy E. Beyond Conquest: Native Peoples and the Struggle for History in New England. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2005.
Lavin, Lucianne. Connecticut’s Indigenous Peoples: What Archaeology, History, and Oral Traditions Teach Us About Their Communities and Cultures. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.
Speck, Frank G. Decorative Art of Indian Tribes of Connecticut. Anthropological Series 10. Ottawa, Canada: Government Printing Bureau, 1915. Link.
Trumbull, J. Hammond. Indian Names of Places, Etc., in and on the Borders of Connecticut: With Interpretations of Some of Them. Hartford, CT: Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, 1881. Link.
Bragdon, Kathleen Joan. Native People of Southern New England, 1500-1650. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.
Bragdon, Kathleen Joan. Native People of Southern New England, 1650-1775. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2009.
Carlson, Richard G. Rooted Like the Ash Trees: New England Indians and the Land. Naugatuck, CT: Eagle Wing Press, 1987.
Spiess, Mathias, and Tercentenary Commission of the State of Connecticut. Committee on Historical Publications. The Indians of Connecticut. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1933.
Mandell, Daniel R. Tribe, Race, History: Native Americans in Southern New England, 1780-1880. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.
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