Keney Park Meadow, ca. early 1900s
Keney Park Meadow, ca. early 1900s - City Park Collection, Hartford History Center, Hartford Public Library

Connecticut’s natural environment—from its flora and fauna to its waterways, soil, and geological formations—has played a vital, if not always appreciated, role in state history. Shad migrations, for example, not only influenced indigenous and colonial cultures, they still inspire town celebrations and local foodways. Ore deposits determined where industries would rise, as was the case with the Salisbury Iron District, and abundant water power made the industrial heyday of the 1800s possible. Depletion, pollution, and other man-made tolls on the environment inspired conservation efforts, including the multi-state effort that led the Connecticut River to be designated an American Heritage River in 1997.



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Virga, Vincent, Diana Ross McCain, and Library of Congress. Geography and Map Division. Connecticut, Mapping the Nutmeg State Through History: Rare and Unusual Maps from the Library of Congress. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot Press, 2011.
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Zeilinga de Boer, Jelle. Stories in Stone How Geology Influenced Connecticut History and Culture. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2011.
Bowen, Clarence Winthrop. The Boundary Disputes of Connecticut. Boston, MA: James R. Osgood and Company, 1882. Link.
Hard, Walter R., Douglas W. Gorsline, and Fitzgerald Rivers of America Collection (Library of Congress). The Connecticut. New York, NY: Rinehart & Company, 1947.
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Bell, Michael. The Face of Connecticut: People, Geology, and the Land. Hartford, CT: State Geological and Natural History Society of Connecticut, 1988.
Alexopoulos, John. The Nineteenth Century Parks of Hartford: A Legacy of the Nation. Hartford, CT: Hartford Architecture Conservancy, 1983.
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