Detail from the Articles of agreement between the English in Connecticutt and the Indian Sachems

Detail from the Articles of agreement between the English in Connecticutt and the Indian Sachems - State Archives, Connecticut State Library

For some, the existence of slavery in New England is still a little known fact. Even fewer realize that Native peoples in the region, including those in Connecticut, were also enslaved. Diaries, letters, and other sources from the early colonial era document cases of Native enslavement. One of the most notorious incidents followed the Fairfield Swamp Fight of July 1637.

Earlier, in May of that year, colonial forces and their Native allies had attacked a Pequot community in Mystic (a campaign colonists called the Battle of Mistick Fort). They then pursued the remaining Pequot men, women, and children across southern New England until July when the last major engagement of the war took place in what is today the town of Fairfield. During this time and throughout the war, many captured Pequot men were killed, while women and children were given to colonists as spoils of war, placed in captivity under other tribes who had pledged their allegiance to the English, or transferred to the Massachusetts Bay Colony, sold into slavery, and shipped to the Caribbean islands and other British outposts.

Some of the Pequot held in Connecticut and the other colonies managed to escape. As Major John Mason, an English settler and a central military figure in the Pequot War who had made Connecticut colony his home, reported, “The Captives we took…we divided, intending to keep them as Servants, but they could not endure that Yoke; few of them continuing any considerable time with their masters.

Mashantucket Pequot oral tradition has played a key role in preserving memory of this history, which until fairly recently, had not been widely studied.

Contributed by staff for the Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center’s Battlefields of the Pequot War project.

Learn More


Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center. “Battlefields of the Pequot War,” 2016. Link.


“Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center,” 2017. Link.


Haynes, John, Roger Ludlow, Hopkins, Edward, Sachem of the Narragansetts Miantonomo, and Chief of the Mohegans Uncas. “Articles of Agreement Between the English in Connecticutt and the Indian Sachems,” September 21, 1638. Link.
Noyes, James. “Letter from James Noyes to John Allyn,” October 1676. Yale Indian Papers Project - New England Indian Papers Series Database. Link.
Carocci, Max. “Written Out of History: Contemporary Native American Narratives of Enslavement.” Anthropology Today 25, no. 2 (April 2009): 15–20. Link.

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